1- Divisions and tasks of the Water Quality Control Department
Water Quality Control Department:
• Technical and administrative supervision of all sections and sites of the S/ S-T / Bsystem.
• Preparing water monitoring plans to ensure the safety of the system.
• Running and equipping laboratories and preparing technical personnel to ensure that all required monitoring tests are carried out.
• Evaluating water quality and issuing technical reports related to water.
• Verify the efficiency of water treatment processes of all kinds at the sites.
• Contributing to improving the quality of produced water in well fields by mixing water in coordination with the Operation and Maintenance Department.
• Follow-up and study of technical phenomena and problems related to water quality.
• Follow up field work in addition to receiving, handling and preparing water samples and documenting them according to scientific methods
• Conducting all chemical and microbiological tests necessary to implement water quality control plans
• Follow-up of devices and special equipment in conducting tests, preparing periodic maintenance plans, and monitoring the stock of materials.
• Application of quality control standards in the laboratory and test methods approved in the manual
• Participate in developing the necessary plans to implement water quality monitoring operations at its sites
Planning and Control Department:
• Prepare a sampling plan using standardized and documented procedures and change it as per business requirements
• Creating customized systems, such as an information database, and data is stored through standardized procedures and periodic reporting (daily - weekly – monthly)
• Monitoring and evaluating tanks in terms of their compliance with drinking water tanks with specifications that are in line with health standards
• Prepare a comprehensive and accurate program to monitor the negative impacts on reservoir water quality and follow it up periodically
Technical Support and Development Department:
• Analyzing data, evaluating results, preparing periodic studies on the current water situation of system sites, and preparing the necessary recommendations
• Examining the technical offers of water quality required from other departments and related to existing and new projects
• Monitor the efficiency of the work of the Tazerbo processing units and follow up on the new operation of the units.
• Follow up the chlorination works in the stations
• Providing training plans for users that would raise the level of professional performance
• Researching new technologies of devices and equipment and submitting proposals for study
• Submit scientific proposals in the field of water to benefit the administration’s participation in research, conferences and scientific symposiums to gain experience and develop work
Senior quality control specialist:
• Full documentation of the quality system in the forms and files
• Ensure the procedures for maintaining equipment and cleaning them completely by using fully documented specific procedures, and ensuring the professionalism of individuals at work
• Periodic checking of all departments of the administration, recording observations and follow-up with the departments to solve quality assurance problems
Senior Water Quality Consultant:
• Conducting the technical studies required by the administration
• Commitment to follow up on technical reports and express opinion
• Providing the administration with the necessary scientific proposals and updates
• Participate in user training if needed
• Preparing an annual periodic visual presentation to interpret technical results and reports
Heads of sites teams:
• Distributing weekly work plans to users according to the work guide at sites, supervising them and following up on their implementation
• Ensure that samples are sent and received between sites and the central laboratory
• Calibrating field work devices and preparing monthly reports accurately for validity of measurement
• Record and document sample results
Field Operations Unit Supervisor:
• Distribute weekly plans
• Sending and receiving samples portfolios between the sites and the central laboratory
• Preparing requests for titration solutions and standard solutions, in addition to materials used in field sites
• Direct communication with the heads of site teams and provide all necessary supplies to monitor water quality
Supervisors of the microbiology and chemistry lab units:
• Technical and administrative supervision of all laboratory work in the microbiology laboratory and the chemistry laboratory
• Coordinate with the Field Operations Unit in the timely transfer and receipt of samples from the sites
• Applying laboratory water analysis plans and working to prevent any problem that causes delay in these works
The information provided by the Water Quality Control Department and its affiliated departments and field work teams at the sites includes data on the types of chemical analyses and bacteriological analyses and the correct methods for taking these typical samples so that they are representative of the source to be tested, therefore, the methods by which correct and accurate results are obtained must be defined and ensured that they are implemented as required, including the method of collecting ideal samples that represent the true content of the source, as it is considered the first and basic step through which data on water quality, whether chemical or microbial, are obtained. The method of sample collection has a major impact on the validity and accuracy of the analytical results that are included in the formation of the water quality database at the central laboratory.
The task and responsibility of collecting samples is entrusted to the water quality monitoring teams at the sites, as they cover the field water quality monitoring work represented in conducting field tests for natural indicators, collecting various samples as required from assembly lines, transportation, main open and closed tanks, and environmental monitoring of the main supply tank in the first stage.
The water quality monitoring program, starting from the flow of water from well fields to the final reservoirs and from different points of the first stage and transferring it to the central laboratory for the purpose of analysis, aims to monitor and document data for the various indicators to follow the graphical line, especially the chemical part that expresses the characteristics of the water-bearing layers in the underground reservoirs, as well as knowing and emphasizing the characteristics of water and its various effects on public health and the safety of the system, to track changes and environmental phenomena in relation to the open main reservoir _ Ajdabiya, and follow up the existing treatment processes in the Tazerbo field and the chlorination process at the Talhiya site, and to conduct documentation processes for all operations in the central laboratory and field sites.
2- The importance of monitoring water quality
The importance of monitoring water quality is represented in the following aspects:
- Ensure that the water's physical, chemical and biological properties are in conformity with the approved specifications
- Inspect the extent of the hostility of the water to the system (the hostility of the water may be: reaction with the concrete causing fragmentation - the precipitation of calcium carbonate - the precipitation of ferric oxide etc.), and then take the necessary measures to protect the system
- Verify the effectiveness of the used water sterilization system
- Preparing appropriate operating plans according to the operating capacity of the wells
- Determine the nature and extent of any emergency contamination (chemical leak, etc.)
- Decision-making by the competent authorities with a view to effectively managing water resources
3- Water Quality Monitoring Plan:
Water quality is monitored by taking water samples from specific points within the S / S-T / B system, with a specified frequency, and by performing physical, chemical, and biological tests on these samples.
The water quality monitoring program includes the following stages:
The designing of a water quality monitoring program, which includes:
- Determine sample points
- Determine the sampling frequency
- Determine appropriate field and laboratory tests
- Preliminary survey to determine basic water quality
Field operations, which include:
- Conducting field tests
Transfer of samples, which includes:
- Sample numbering
- Sample processing and preservation
Central laboratory activities:
- Sterilize and clean materials and equipment
- Preparation of reagents and standard solutions
- Conducting chemical and biological analyzes
Analytical Quality Control:
- Computer data entry and retrieval
Interpret, analyze and comment on test results:
- Preparing graphs of test results
- Determining the direction in which the various indicators deviate (trend)
- Compare the results with the applicable standard specifications
- The effect of water quality indicators exceeding the maximum limits stipulated in the specifications.
Issuing technical reports and referring them to the competent authorities to take the necessary decisions:
- Convert data into clear, understandable information
- Take special decisions by the relevant departments
4- Procedures for collecting and testing water samples:
The information provided by the central laboratory to the departments includes data on chemical analyses and bacteriological analyses, therefore, the methods by which this information is obtained must be defined and made sure that it is carried out in the correct way.
Sample collection is the first and basic step through which data on water quality, whether bacterial or chemical, are obtained, as the method of sample collection has a major impact on the validity and accuracy of the analytical results.
The sample representation of water quality from the different parts and areas of the project depends on the following factors:
1. Safety advice during sample collection
2. Selection of collection points
3. Collecting samples and field tests
4. Sample collection procedures or collection methods
5. Preservation of samples
6. Transfer of samples
7. Receiving or taking in samples
8. Run the test
1. Safety advice during sample collection:
Precautions must be taken when taking the sample. Sometimes it requires two people to take the sample, as in the following cases:
• From the inside of tanks or locked rooms
• Sample collection by boat on the roof of an open water tank
• Collection of samples from inside the pipeline
Often the second person is the driver who accompanies the person in charge of taking the sample, so he must be aware of first aid in the event of collecting samples from unsafe places or if anything happens that deserves this procedure.
Sample collectors must be aware of the risks they may be exposed to while collecting samples. For example, the area around an open water tank may cause slipping due to the formation of a sticky substance due to the growth of algae or bacteria. In the event that no one accompanies the sample collector, he may slip or suffer any harm without finding someone to rescue him.
There is another case where the sample collector has to climb to the top to collect samples from a tank or room and then falls down with no one to help him, therefore, the sample collector must calculate all these risks, and he must also take the necessary measures to make the sampling safer. If sufficient precautions are not present, then the sample should not be collected from that place. Also, in some cases, the air inside the closed rooms is not healthy, then it is necessary to ventilate the room and make sure that the air is breathable before entering it.
Another example is sampling by boat from an open water tank, two people must be present and wear Lifebuoy rings, a thread should be attached to the boat in the wind direction. So that the boat can be towed in emergency situations. In bad weather, samples should not be taken by boat.
The following table shows safe methods for sample collection:
|Description of sampling location
|Safety precautions needed
|Locked rooms and Pipeline system lines
|• Not to go directly to the manholes and make sure that the air inside them is healthy.
• Two people must collect the sample.
|Open tanks - water entry and exit areas
|• Check the weather
• Make sure the space around open tanks may be slippery due to algal and bacterial growth.
• A life jacket must be worn when using the boat for sample collection.
|Wells, collector pipes, side holes
|• Check entry and weather conditions
• Two people must collect the sample
- 2. Selection of collection points:
The selection of the sample collection point is one of the important elements in the sample representation of the water quality of the source to be studied, and the selection depends on the following:
• The purpose of the sample collection
• The presence of the place and the possibility of its entry
• The collection point should represent the total water content
• The greatest degree of safety during sample collection
• Degree of harvesting
There are other factors that influence the choice of a collection site or point, such as:
• Homogeneous mixing.
• Plug flow.
• Longitudinal mixing.
• Longitudinal and transverse mixing.
The flow of water in pipelines is considered homogeneous due to the long distance from which the water is coming, for example the number of collection sites is less than that of sources with longitudinal and transverse mixing.
There are cases of plug flow in the project, for example, open tanks, for which it is advisable to take samples from certain depths at the center of the tank.
Samples are taken at certain depths as well from entering and leaving the water using a sample collection machine.
Water samples are taken to obtain chemical and microbial information about water quality to understand the nature of the water supplied to the consumer.
The objectives of sample collection and study are to monitor the water used for various purposes.
- 3. Collecting samples and field tests:
Many chemical indicators are considered inconstant and unstable during the pre-test time in the central laboratory, so it is necessary to perform on-site tests for the indicators shown in the following table:
The following table shows some of the indicators required to be conducted at the site:
|Type of analysis
|Reasons for field measurements
|The PH value changes rapidly
|It should be measured on site
|This indicator is not constant over time, as carbon dioxide is released with a change in pressure as in the case of well pumping
|Since it is partially dependent on carbon dioxide it is considered to be unstable.
|Like carbon dioxide, it is also not stable
|Chlorine changes over time and its chemical composition changes to compounds such as free chlorine, total chlorine and chlorine amines.
|Samples are collected in sterile glass bottles and kept in a cooler box in the dark. It is assumed that the tests take place 6 hours before the sample is collected.
|Best performed on site and 1 hour after sample collection.
|Best performed on site and 1 hour after sample collection.
|It must be performed on site.
Sometimes there are other reasons for conducting on-site tests, for example when conducting water quality studies that include several analyses that need to be studied at the site, in this case, there may be other indicators that must be measured at the site other than those mentioned in the above table, an example of this is when following the chlorination process by monitoring the chlorine concentration through the water system or through an open tank.
Another example is monitoring the water quality in the system by measuring the calcium concentration and total roughness with carbon dioxide content.
It is necessary to send the results to the central laboratory to put them in the computer and compare them with the accompanying sample that was studied in the central laboratory.
4. Sample collection procedures:
In order to take the sample and transport it to the central laboratory in a proper way, this requires the stability of the sample while it is taken and transported, this takes 6 to 10 hours, and the sampling method is an important part of the analysis process.
• Sample collection utensils:
Sample collection utensils are one of the important things to consider during sample collection. Sample vials are prepared in the central laboratory and sent to the various sub-laboratories of the project. These vessels must be kept clean before they are used. The size of the sample collection container is important. The sample size must be sufficient to perform all the required analyses twice, according to the methods of quality control analysis (AQC).
• Manual methods of sample collection:
• Transportation system::
Taking samples from the transmission system is a normal work in this project, taking into account the various safety methods previously mentioned, samples can be taken from the pipelines of the pipeline system according to the following steps:
• Remove the manhole cover
• Ensure that the air inside the room is healthy.
• Use the stairs in the room to go down and make sure that it is in good condition before going down.
• Install a flexible hose to the valve of the sample collection tube and take it out of the room and away from the pipeline.
• Rotating the sampling tool wheel to lower the collection tube into the piping system.
• Opening the manhole valve.
• Open the valve of the sampling tool tube and let the water flow for two minutes, then collect the sample.
• Rotate the sampling tool wheel to raise the sample collection tube.
• Close the manhole gate valve.
• Close the valve of the sampling tool, remove the hose from the valve and store it, then make sure that the chamber is closed.
When all samples are taken in this way, the sample collector must complete the forms issued by the central laboratory. These samples should be stored in a plastic container that prevents water from entering and placed in a cool box to be sent with the samples to the central laboratory.
Samples taken from reservoirs are usually collected from the entry and exit of water, through the reservoir, and from the perimeter. It is best to use a deep sample collector for water entry and exit points, and use a standard sampler for all other samples. It is important to ensure that the sample collection machine is clean and washed with water before use. Check again that the sample size is sufficient for all analyses. Also, samples of the transport system after being taken must be marked and stored in the cold box, as well as sample forms must be completed before being sent to the central laboratory. Most important of all, always ensure safety when using a sampling boat.
When a sample is requested which represents the water-bearing layer of the well, the water pump must be operated for a period that ensures the water in the well-coating pipes column is drained before taking the sample, this duration is controlled by the rate of water flow to the pump.
There is also a type of sample that is taken at the beginning and during the operation of the pump. In all cases, samples are usually taken from a plug (tap) at the end of the collection tube, this faucet must be cleaned thoroughly before sampling.
In the case of microbiology samples, the tap must be sterilized before sample collection, this can be accomplished by exposing the faucet before sample collection to a flame for several seconds prior to taking the sample using a portable gas device or by washing it with ethylene alcohol or any disinfectant. Allow the water to flow for one minute before collecting the sample. The pre-sterilized collection bottle should be brought close to the tap without touching it.
Allow water to enter 1 to 2 cm from the top of the bottle and close the bottle immediately. It is best to use plastic gloves when collecting this sample, or ensure that the mouth of the bottle is not touched or covered with hands.
For chemical samples, a piece of paper with sufficient information about each sample is placed in the icebox and transferred to the central laboratory as soon as possible.
In the rest of the sample types there is a special tap for collecting the sample. The taps should be cleaned and washed with distilled water. There is a special case when collecting bacterial samples, which is that it is usually believed that there is free chlorine remaining in the sample, so it is advised to use sterile vials containing sodium thiosulfate to interact with chlorine and remove it from the sample, otherwise it kills the bacteria that are present in the sample, which gives incorrect results.
5. Preservation of samples:
Groundwater, or water in general, is complex in structure, always unstable and subject to change, and therefore it must be preserved with chemicals called preservatives.
It is necessary to test the sample as soon as possible after its collection, because in many cases the sample is not preserved so as not to deal with the additive as a preservative during the tests. A good example is the bacteriological samples, which must be tested within 6.0 hours of the sample collection and which are not preserved in order to obtain accurate results.
Chemical indicators, many samples are collected at long distances from the central laboratory, so transferring samples to the central laboratory is necessary. The conditions for storing samples during transportation must be taken into account in order to minimize the volume of change that occurs during sample collection and testing.
Taking the necessary arrangements and creating the appropriate conditions for transporting samples is very important so that the sample reaches the central laboratory at the planned time.
For many tests, if not completed within 24 hours of collection, it may change to the point that the results become useless
All sample collection utensils and vials are provided by the central laboratory. They are sent to sub laboratories and kept clean all the time. These bottles and utensils are prepared by the central laboratory.
Site laboratory users must be trained in sampling and analysis in their on-site laboratories. Any chemical solutions must be prepared by the central laboratory and sent to the site laboratories. For this, it is necessary to maintain constant communication between the workers in these laboratories and the workers in the central laboratory.
6. Sample Transportation:
The transport of samples must be organized so that samples are taken quickly and sent to the central laboratory where they are studied in a short time. When looking at Appendix 1, we find that samples should be kept cool and dark after they are taken from the site. This is to prevent any changes or reactions in the chemical and microbial content. This is important where temperatures reach 50 ° C or higher. Cooler boxes are provided with blue cooling molds. When transporting samples, these boxes must be kept clean at all times, and containers containing preservatives must be separated from empty containers, such as plastic bottles without preservatives and metal bottles containing (2%) nitric acid as a preservative.
Microbiological samples must be kept separate from the chemical analysis vials, and the cool box must contain samples forms. These forms are used in the central laboratory to know the nature of the samples.
7. Receiving samples in the laboratory and testing them:
Samples are delivered to the central laboratory by a person in charge of delivery. Samples are received in the cold boxes. It is very important to deliver the samples in the sample receiving area that has refrigerators to store the samples and where the chemical analysis samples are separated from the bacteriological samples.
The responsibility of the sample recipient is to verify the data on the samples against the information on the vials. All specimens must be identified and given laboratory numbers. The samples are then sent to the chemical or bacteriological laboratory for analysis. All these numbers appear on the daily test results book, for which a laboratory worker is responsible.
Some samples require immediate analysis. The sample recipient should clarify this to the rest of the lab technicians. For example, bacterial analyses must begin immediately after the arrival of samples. Also, some chemical analyzes should start immediately, such as the pH, the electrical conductivity and the nitrate level.
When the daily work ends, the samples must be returned to the refrigerator for overnight storage. Samples are usually kept between (1) and (4) degrees Celsius, when taking samples out of the refrigerator, they must be left for a period of time at room temperature before starting the analysis.
Some examples of important indicators for water
Sometimes the color of the water gives an important indication, drinking water should be colorless. The color is produced either from natural materials, whether organic, such as plant residues or inorganic, such as iron and manganese salts, or as a result of chemicals produced from industrial wastes such as dyes and tanning materials. Color is one of the most significant indicators of the inadequacy of water for human use and some industrial uses. Color is estimated by a light estimator.
Taste and smell:
Both are related to each other, as the water may taste unpalatable with an unacceptable odor due to the presence of algae or organic materials or as a result of its mixing with wastewater, and the smell may be due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide gas, as drinking water has no taste or odor.
Temperature testing is an important indicator in evaluating water quality monitoring, as its height affects the chemical reactions and its speed, as well as the validity of water for use. It also greatly affects aquatic life, as its height affects the percentage of dissolved oxygen (reverse proportion).
The pH expresses the activity and effectiveness of the hydrogen ion in water, as it refers to the numerical value of the logarithm of the inverse of the concentration of the hydrogen ion in moles per liter of base (10), and the pH value for solutions ranges between (0-14) where the solutions are acidic if the pH value is Less than 07, and basic if the value is more than 07, but if it is equal to 07, the solutions are neutral, the pH value of most natural waters is generally between (4 - 9).
Electrical conductivity is defined as a numerical value indicating the ability of water to conduct electrical conductivity, and this conductivity depends on the presence, concentration and equivalence of dissolved ions in water and on the water temperature during the measurement. The electrical conductivity of potable water ranges from 50 to 1500 μS / cm.
Redox Potential (ORP):
It is the measurement of the oxidation and reduction potential of the sample and this test shows if the water is an oxidizing or reducing medium, so water is considered an oxidizing medium if the value is positive and a reducing medium if the value is negative.
It is the optical property of water resulting from the spread of light and its absorption by suspended matter instead of moving in a straight line through the water sample. The presence of small particles suspended in the water causes its turbidity as it gives a cloudy appearance, and the suspended materials may be composed of fine organic and inorganic materials, and also include particles from soil and some microorganisms that may be found in the water naturally or as a result of human activity or pollution.
The dissolved oxygen in water is an indication of the state of the water body, so much can be learned about the nature of the water resource from knowing the amount of dissolved oxygen in it, and the importance of dissolved oxygen in water is that it regulates the vital processes of aquatic groups, it also cannot be dispensed with, even if its concentration falls below a certain level to sustain aquatic life, as fish need the highest percentage of dissolved oxygen, followed by aquatic invertebrates and then bacteria. The dissolved oxygen in the water works to dissolve organic pollutants and rid the water body of these materials, therefore, its absence in the water leads to anaerobic decomposition of organic pollutants in the water, which results in harmful gases such as methane and hydrogen sulfide.
Dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2):
The dissolved carbon dioxide concentration of well water samples can be estimated mathematically in terms of pH and total alkalinity, since there is a relationship between carbon dioxide, alkalinity and ph.
Chlorine is an important factor in drinking water treatment, as its addition to water eliminates microorganisms and stops their activity, which raises the level of water quality, it should be noted that chlorine interacts with ammonia, iron, manganese and some organic materials.
Nitrates are the final product of nitrogen oxidation, they are considered one of the important indicators in determining the type and quality of water, as its high levels lead to serious diseases. Its concentration in drinking water should not exceed 45 mg / liter according to WHO standards, as the increased concentration of nitrates in drinking water leads to blood poisoning of children, Blue Baby.
It is considered harmless, but its presence in high concentrations makes the water taste bad. Also, water containing iron produces an unwanted color as a result of iron oxidation as soon as it is exposed to oxygen, which leads to the appearance of stains in the clothing and basins.
Its presence in small quantities leads to many problems and high concentrations of it are considered toxic. Its source is mostly industrial pollution and it can be found in some groundwater in low concentrations.
The total number of bacteria:
The total number of bacteria is necessary after performing the operations that will remove the microbes in the water (sedimentation - filtration - chlorination) to assess the efficiency of these processes in getting rid of microbes. Generally, water of good quality is excluded because it contains the least possible number of microbes, which is less than 100 colonies per 1 milliliter.
The Coliform group are ideal guides for detecting the extent of contamination in wastewater. As the natural habitat of the coliform group is the intestines of humans and other warm-blooded animals, they are naturally non-pathogenic. The colon group is characterized by being gram negative and non-pathogenic, and Lactose fermenting, producing acid and gas within 24 hours at 37 ° C. The colon group has many similar properties to the genera of Samonella and Shigella (pathogenic bacteria) and the other two genera are known to be pathogens and colonize the intestine (in sick or carriers of the disease), but they do not ferment the lactose.
Escherichia Coli and the rest of the colon group are able to ferment lactose, producing a gas and an acid that is hypothetical evidence of contamination of water with wastewater.
Streptococcus bacteria are Gram-positive bacteria that are spherical in shape and are found in the form of chains, this type of bacteria has the ability to live in groundwater.